Research Reports

While public investment in preschool has been an increasingly popular social policy and there are numerous studies documenting its positive impacts, it is not without controversy. Most critics questioned whether it is worth the investment, as some studies suggested the impacts could be minimal or fade quickly. Others challenged the validity of the studies, as many existing findings were based on small samples or subject to selection bias.

To build on the success of GSRP and help address these concerns, this evaluation study aims to answer four questions:

  • Is GSRP equitably accessible to 4-year-old eligible children across geographic, racial/ethnic and income subgroups?
  • How do different GSRP quality and implementation strategies relate to preschool outcomes?
  • What are the academic benefits of GSRP?
  • What are the economic returns to ISDs and comparative cost-effectiveness?


  • Wilinski, B., Morley, A., & Wu, J. H. (2023). Reconceptualizing Family Engagement as an Improvisational Practice: Lessons from Pre‑K Teachers’ Practices During COVID‑19. Early Childhood Education Journal,
  • Akaeze, H. O., Wu, J. H., Lawrence, F. R., & Weber, E. P. (2023). Validation of the Child Observation Record Advantage 1.5 Assessment Tool for Preschool Children: A Multilevel Bifactor Modeling Approach. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment,
  • Wilinski, B., Morley, A. & Wu, J. H. (2022). Uncovering New Opportunities for Family Engagement During COVID-19. Phi Delta Kappan,103 (7), 14-17,
  • Akaeze, H. O., Lawrence, F. R. & Wu, J. H. (2022). Resolving Dimensionality in a Child Assessment Tool: An Application of the Multilevel Bifactor Model. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 83 (1), 93-115,
  • Wu, J. H., Akaeze, H. O. & Van Egeren, L. A. (In Print). Tracking Child Development in Preschool Settings: The Case of COR Advantage. Dimensions of Early Childhood. 

Papers Under Review 

  • Wu, J. H. & Akaeze, H. O. (Under Review). Who attends public pre-kindergarten? A model-based approach to understanding similarities and differences among Michigan public pre-K students.

  • Wu, J. H., Akaeze, H. O., Wilinski, B. & Morley, A. (Under Review). Covid-induced policy change in public pre-K: How did middle-income families respond? 

  • Akaeze, H. O., Miller, S. & Wu, J. H. (Under Review). Geographically weighted regression: A spatial lens for assessing equity in educational resources.  

  • Wu, J. H. & Akaeze, H. O. (Under Review). Consider all the evidence on pre-K programs for low-income children: Why randomized controlled trial results must not dictate public policy.

  • Wu, J. H., Akaeze, H. O. & Van Egeren, L. A. (Under Review). Tracking child development in preschool settings: The case of COR Advantage.

Papers In Development 

  • Use of geographically weighted regression to assess spatial equity in educational interventions: A Michigan example 

  • Effects of a state pre-kindergarten program on the kindergarten readiness and attendance of at-risk four-year-olds 


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